Cyber Security Specialist Career Guide & Outlook

Learn What a Cyber Security Specialist Does, the Requirements Needed and Job Growth

If you enjoyed playing hide and seek as a child, or if Where's Waldo was your passion, you might enjoy a career as a cyber security specialist. Whether or not you actually liked those games, as long as you now have an interest in finding hidden things (specifically, threats to networking systems) this career could work for you. Cyber security specialists typically work in tandem with other security employees to find threats and respond. They also help develop standards and protocols to not only respond when a threat occurs, but also to prevent incursions from getting through the system and causing damage.

What Does a Security Specialist Do?

As a security specialist, your job will be to provide support to the company by helping to protect and defend its internal networking systems or technological assets. A key component in this position is understanding how to locate holes in the current system, then research and recommend the best hardware and software for the company to purchase and install to close those holes.

Security specialists work in all areas of information technology. You might work in software development, or in cyber architectural design, or even cyber forensics. Regardless of which department you are connected to, your job expectations will be the same: find threats, suggest solutions, design defense strategies, and perform other IT related tasks. In some ways, you will be the company's first line of defense against cyber-attacks as you continue to try to out-think the hackers and stay one step ahead of the game.

What are Their Responsibilities, Common Duties, and Tasks?

The overarching duty of a cyber security specialist is protection, protection, protection.

Within that main responsibility you will be expected to perform multiple tasks including:

  • Design security steps to be taken in the event of an attack
  • Carry that strategy out if it happens
  • Install protective firewalls, software, and hardware
  • Continue to educate yourself on the latest security trends and products to help defend against security threats
  • Monitor the network and look for breaches in security
  • Complete investigations when an attack succeeds and report to others as to what you found
  • Develop and install data encryption tools
  • Teach employees as needed how to use computer equipment and follow security measures
  • Write reports detailing all security breaches
  • Analyze those situations and present suggestions for the future
  • Help design the best practices and standards for the company's network and data systems
  • Work with others to develop a disaster response plan
  • Perform penetration activities to continually test the strength of the system
  • Upgrade the system with current patches
  • Monitor for unauthorized attempts to access the system – investigate those attempts

How to Become a Cyber Security Specialist

Due to the diverse nature of how many areas your security specialist skills will be useful, there are several paths you can take to get to this position.

It’s almost a sure bet you will need an education. A bachelor's degree in one of the computer science fields is usually expected by employers, however, if you get a master’s degree at some point in your career, it could mean more money and even better chances for advancement.

Once you have that degree, you need to get experience in the field of information technology. Starting out as a specialist is not a given. You should apply for positions in IT where you can get your foot in the door and start actually working in the industry. There are many general entry-level positions that can work well including IT support, software development, and network administration. After you build some experience, you can start applying for either lateral or vertical positions as a specialist.

It will be helpful if you gain the work experience in the area in which you wish to become a security specialist. If you want to work in software, gain your work years in the software development department. A few years working in hardware can parlay into a position in the security architecture world.

Typical Requirements for Hiring

Whether you are applying to a company where you have no ties, or you are already an employee looking to move into a specialist position, potential supervisors and employers will look at several areas to determine whether to offer you a position as a cyber security specialist. While each company or supervisor is different in what they want, there are several key factors to the job that remain constant across the board.


Do you have a bachelor's degree in computer science or a related field of study? There are employers who hire security specialists based on work experience alone, but the vast majority of employers want you to have a bachelor's degree.

Work Experience

In most cases, you will be expected to bring several years of computer-related work experience to the table when you apply for a security specialist position. This is not always the case, but it is for most employers. This experience can be in just about any IT department or security-related job. You can work in software, hardware, research, forensics, or other IT departments to gain the experience you need for the security specialist position.

While working to gain the experience you need, focus on jobs that dovetail closely with the cyber security specialist skill sets. Generally speaking, you should gain five years of related work experience before applying to move into a security specialist position.

Position Level

Due to the fact that to become a security specialist you are not only required to have a degree, but also have worked in the field for several years first, this position is considered a mid-level position in the industry.


It is possible to obtain a security specialist position without having any certifications, but in the course of building the work experience needed to apply, it won't hurt to gather a few certifications as well. Each certification you are able to attain will confirm to potential employers/supervisors that you are skilled in that certification's area of expertise. This can put you ahead of the pack in a pile of applicants if all other things are equal.

Examples of certifications you might achieve include

  • System Security Certified Practitioner
  • Cisco Certified Internetwork Expert
  • GSEC: SANS GIAC Security Essentials

In choosing which certifications you want to obtain on your way toward a security specialist position, consider the overall impact each one will achieve. Some certificates are vendor specific. Though vendor systems may be well-known and widely used, it is probably an advantage when first attaining certifications to include some that are globally useful without being vendor-specific.

In addition to the above elements that employers could require you to have, there are some basic skill-sets that also go with the position.

They will want you to have a firm grasp of all things related to:

  • Software Design
  • Penetration Tools
  • Software Design
  • Architecture – when it comes to hardware
  • Anti-virus Software

Skills Needed

There are certain soft skills-sets that will work well in a security specialist career. If you possess these skills, that’s great. If not, you can strengthen them prior to applying for the job. Most of the soft skills listed are simply a matter of focusing on the job.

  • Detail Oriented This applies to many careers but in cyber security it becomes especially important as missing a detail can allow a threat to become an attack on the network system.
  • Analytical Thinking You will be expected to figure out why 2 plus 2 equaled 7 during an attack or threat. The ability to see the big picture and quickly follow a threat trail to the answer is necessary here.


Several factors become relevant when it comes to salary. The area in which you live and work will dictate an overall standard of pay. In addition, your education, certifications, and work experience will form a platform for what you make. Finally, various department's salary ranges can vary. With that said, there is a median salary range for this position. According to the average annual salary is $107,000.

Outlook & Jobs

The future for this career is promising. The continued expansion of the duties that the world expects computers to perform will mean additional jobs in cyber security. Hackers work 24 hours a day to find ways to infiltrate networks and systems, and either harm them or steal sensitive data. This reality means there will be an increased need for cyber security specialists, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics.

This particular career is expected to see a 32% increase in jobs between 2018 and 2028. Statistically, this is a much quicker than average growth percentage.

For your long-term career goals, you might use your experience as a security specialist to move into an upper-level position such as a senior security consultant or a director of information security. As long as the Internet continues to thrive, a career in cyber security will be a good choice.

Cyber Security Careers and Jobs

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The Bureau of Labor Statistics predicts cyber security to be one of the fastest growing fields in the near future. The demand for these positions is on the rise and all business is going to need to keep their data safe from potential external and internal threats.

Chief Information Security Officer (CISO)

The CISO executive oversees cyber security systems and information security, as well as all departments associated with these systems.

Chief Security Officer (CSO)

These executives deal with data and physical security systems, controlling database and facility entry and all departments that deal with cybersecurity professionals and surrounding policies.

Chief Technology Officer (CTO)

This executive deals with development and implementation of computer systems. They receive organizational reports on the use and effectiveness of tech in regards to online systems security.

Computer Forensics Investigator

Analyze computers or web-based applications in the search for forensic evidence of a crime. This is done in support of the law after commission of a crime, or in efforts to assess a network's vulnerabilities.


Cryptographers are responsible for deciphering encrypted data. They might do after the commission of a crime. They also work to create better encryption to create stronger networks and safer data storage.

Incident Responder

Incident responders work with companies or governments to respond quickly after a possible threat has been detected. They find the source of the issue, determine if it’s a real threat, and discover how the incursion occurred.

Penetration Tester

Penetration testers seek to create an incursion. By doing so, they reveal the weak points of a security system so that these points can be secured better in the future.

Risk Analyst

Cyber security risk analysts spend their time looking for systems, procedures, or malware which could cause unintended negative occurrences, such as system crashes or slowdowns. They help create procedures to fix these problems quickly if they do occur.

Security Administrator

Cyber security administrators are responsible for dealing with all security and safety issues. They may create procedures or policies in order to maintain a companies overall security.

Security Analyst

A cyber security analyst maintains networks and fix issues that come up during normal operation. They may also identify threats and neutralizing them as quickly as possible.

Security Architect

This position requires you to choose or design security elements, whether physical parts that will become a part of the system or the virtual system that will provide access to all the company's data.

Security Auditor

These specialists may be kept on retainer or brought in after changes are made to a system. They provide a system-wide audit to make sure there are no chinks in the armor of the network or system.

Security Consultant

Security consultants devise security plans should they experience an incursion or help companies that are just getting started set up their security system from the ground up.

Security Director

The director of security helps create and review all policies and procedures related to security. They also ensure compliance with local or federal laws related to security concerns, such as the safety of patient data.

Security Engineer

A security engineer is responsible for creating computing systems which increases security and they solve any issues turned up by a security audit or incursion incident.

Security Manager

The security manager oversees entry level and senior security staff on a day-to-day basis, making sure staffing is steady and all issues are dealt with and reported to the highest-level security professionals.

Security Software Developer

Specializing in security software solutions, they create software for individuals to use on home computers or advanced solutions meant for multi-billion-dollar industries or even government agencies.

Security Specialist

This is an entry-level position in which a specialist may monitor or troubleshoot system or network issues. They may perform basic test procedures, reporting all activity and feedback to their manager.

Vulnerability Assessor

This security specialist tests systems for vulnerabilities, much in the same way penetration testers do. Instead of performing penetration testing, they look through applications or software for possible weaknesses and data security leaks.

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